‘ALBO, JOSEPH, a Spanish Jewish theologian of the 15th century. He was author of a very popular book on the philosophy of Judaism, entitled ‘Iqqarim or Fundamentals. Maimonides in the 12th century had formulated the principles of Judaism in thirteen articles; Albo reduced them to three: (i) The Existence of God, (ii) Revelation and (iii) Divine Retribution. Albo set the example of minimizing Messianism in the formulation of Jewish beliefs. Though he fully maintained the Mosaic authorship of the Law and the binding force of tradition, he discriminated between the essential and the non-essential in the practices and beliefs of Judaism. An English translation of the ‘Iqqarim appeared in the Hebrew Review, vols. i.-iii.
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